Институт водных проблем Севера КарНЦ РАН

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Zhijun LI

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Comparison and analysis on the statistical models for the diurnal variations of lake ice albedo under clear skies
Zhijun LI

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The mathematical fitting looks perfect and may play the essential role in a further studies of ice thickness dynamics and related issues. Still the challenging question remains: what are the processes and mechanisms which “generate” these remarkable “U“ and “M”curves? To what extent these curves are general?  What factors may crucially violate these shapes?

Sergey Bogdanov
Northern Water Problems Institute Karelian Research Centre of RAS

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Zhijun LI
Dalian University of Technology, Professor

Dear Dr. Sergey Bogdanov Thank you very much for your good questions. I try to answer you well. However, I can not think I can give you best answers. My background is ice physics and mechanics for ice engineering. While we develop the ecosystem under ice, the solar radiation drive is important. Ecosystem needs local daily energy very much compare with present ice thickness growth and melting because their scale is larger, and compare with present ice remote sensing because its scale is largest. If we consider the accurate ice thickness simulation with large computer and more and more satellites to cover polar areas, the daily albedo variation is necessary.

While I analyzed the 4 winter’s albedo, not the radiation flux, it is easy to find the whole albedo curves every day (whole 24 hours). They are similar. While I look the literatures, for the whole day automatically records. There are only several papers from on Chinese organization to measure the glacier ice surface. I did not find English literature. There are some papers to explain the U-shape from the moistures in the morning and in the afternoon. Some said from scatter light that should be at lower solar altitude angle. The past measurement can not give M-shape because the old method usually records the data in 10 min, or 30 min. In these way, there are only several data in the period before the peak in the morning and after the peak in the evening. They use U-shape by two exponential functions, simple way. I understand the peak value and position depend on the sunrise and sunset times, they depend on the geophysical or geography parameters.

Which element will affect the peak value and positions? I believe cloud is the key one. However, I think I can use same functions to multi a cloud amount function can control them even the albedo become a flat line (one value in whole day). In this way, I hope my method can cover 90% cases in the ice surface if I can add the dust on surface and melted surface. I hope my method is useful for polar areas because they are a lot of cloudy days in one year. Please keep tight contact and exchange more ideas. You can use my e-mail address and post address. Best regards, Zhijun LI, Professor State Key Laboratory of Coastal and Offshore Engineering Dalian University of Technology 116023 Dalian China E-mail:lizhijun@dlut.edu.cn

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